Jan. Baseball ist neben American Football ein typisch US-amerikanischer Sport. Die Regeln sind gar nicht so schwer, wie viele Menschen denken. Sept. Bei einem Baseball-Spiel stehen sich zwei Teams mit je 9 Spielern gegenüber. Eine der beiden Mannschaften ist das Angriffsteam (Offense). Jan. Baseball ist neben American Football ein typisch US-amerikanischer Sport. Die Regeln sind gar nicht so schwer, wie viele Menschen denken.
The players of the home team shall take their defensive positions, the first batter of the visiting team shall take his position in the batter's box, the umpire shall call "Play" and the game shall start.
When the ball is put in play at the start of, or during a game, all fielders other than the catcher shall be on fair territory. The batting order shall be followed throughout the game unless a player is substituted for another.
In that case the substitute shall take the place of the replaced player in the batting order. Each player of the offensive team shall bat in the order that his name appears in his team's batting order.
The first batter in each inning after the first inning shall be the player whose name follows that of the last player who legally completed his time at bat in the preceding inning.
A CATCH is the act of a fielder in getting secure possession in his hand or glove of a ball in flight and firmly holding it; providing he does not use his cap, protector, pocket or any other part of his uniform in getting possession.
After he hits a fair ball, he or first base is tagged before he touches first base; A TAG is the action of a fielder in touching a base with his body while holding the ball securely and firmly in his hand or glove; or touching a runner with the ball, or with his hand or glove holding the ball, while holding the ball securely and firmly in his hand or glove.
The Strike Zone shall be determined from the batter's stance as the batter is prepared to swing at a pitched ball. The batter becomes a runner and is entitled to first base without liability to be put out when - Four "balls" have been called by the umpire; A BALL is a pitch which does not enter the strike zone in flight and is not struck at by the batter.
He is touched by a pitched ball which he is not attempting to hit unless 1 The ball is in the strike zone when it touches the batter, or 2 The batter makes no attempt to avoid being touched by the ball;.
He hits a FAIR BALL; A FAIR BALL is a batted ball that settles on fair ground between home and first base, or between home and third base, or that is on or over fair territory when bounding to the outfield past first or third base, or that touches first, second or third base, or that first falls on fair territory on or beyond first base or third base, or that, while on or over fair territory touches the person of an umpire or player, or that, while over fair territory, passes out of the playing field in flight.
A fair fly shall be judged according to the relative position of the ball and the foul line, including the foul pole, and not as to whether the fielder is on fair or foul territory at the time he touches the ball.
If a fly ball lands in the infield between home and first base, or home and third base, and then bounces to foul territory without touching a player or umpire and before passing first or third base, it is a foul ball; or if the ball settles on foul territory or is touched by a player on foul territory, it is a foul ball.
If a fly ball lands on or beyond first or third base and then bounces to foul territory, it is a fair hit. All foul lines are in fair territory. A runner acquires the right to an unoccupied base when he touches it before he is put out.
He is then entitled to it until he is put out, or forced to vacate it for another runner legally entitled to that base.
In advancing, a runner shall touch first, second, third and home base in order. If forced to return, he shall retouch all bases in reverse order, unless the ball is dead under any provision of Rule 5.
In such cases, the runner may go directly to his original base. Two runners may not occupy a base, but if, while the ball is alive, two runners are touching a base, the following runner shall be out when tagged.
The preceding runner is entitled to the base. After the ball is dead, play shall be resumed when the pitcher takes his place on the pitcher's plate with a new ball or the same ball in his possession and the plate umpire calls "Play.
There are two legal pitching positions, the Windup Position and the Set Position, and either position may be used at any time. The pitcher shall stand facing the batter, his entire pivot foot on, or in front of and touching and not off the end of the pitcher's plate, and the other foot free.
From this position any natural movement associated with his delivery of the ball to the batter commits him to the pitch without interruption or alteration.
He shall not raise either foot from the ground, except that in his actual delivery of the ball to the batter, he may take one step backward, and one step forward with his free foot.
A typical roster features the following players: The manager , or head coach, oversees the team's major strategic decisions, such as establishing the starting rotation, setting the lineup, or batting order, before each game, and making substitutions during games—in particular, bringing in relief pitchers.
Managers are typically assisted by two or more coaches ; they may have specialized responsibilities, such as working with players on hitting, fielding, pitching, or strength and conditioning.
At most levels of organized play, two coaches are stationed on the field when the team is at bat: Any baseball game involves one or more umpires, who make rulings on the outcome of each play.
At a minimum, one umpire will stand behind the catcher, to have a good view of the strike zone, and call balls and strikes.
Additional umpires may be stationed near the other bases, thus making it easier to judge plays such as attempted force outs and tag outs.
In MLB, four umpires are used for each game, one near each base. In the playoffs, six umpires are used: Many of the pre-game and in-game strategic decisions in baseball revolve around a fundamental fact: During the late innings of a game, as relief pitchers and pinch hitters are brought in, the opposing managers will often go back and forth trying to create favorable matchups with their substitutions: With a team that has the lead in the late innings, a manager may remove a starting position player—especially one whose turn at bat is not likely to come up again—for a more skillful fielder.
The tactical decision that precedes almost every play in a baseball game involves pitch selection. With a runner on base and taking a lead , the pitcher may attempt a pickoff , a quick throw to a fielder covering the base to keep the runner's lead in check or, optimally, effect a tag out.
Violation of any one of these rules could result in the umpire calling a balk against the pitcher, which permits any runners on base to advance one base with impunity.
With a runner on third base, the infielders may play in , moving closer to home plate to improve the odds of throwing out the runner on a ground ball , though a sharply hit grounder is more likely to carry through a drawn-in infield.
Several basic offensive tactics come into play with a runner on first base, including the fundamental choice of whether to attempt a steal of second base.
The hit and run is sometimes employed with a skillful contact hitter: A batter, particularly one who is a fast runner, may also attempt to bunt for a hit.
A sacrifice bunt employed with a runner on third base, aimed at bringing that runner home, is known as a squeeze play. The evolution of baseball from older bat-and-ball games is difficult to trace with precision.
Consensus once held that today's baseball is a North American development from the older game rounders , popular among children in Great Britain and Ireland.
A Search for the Roots of the Game , by American baseball historian David Block, suggests that the game originated in England; recently uncovered historical evidence supports this position.
Block argues that rounders and early baseball were actually regional variants of each other, and that the game's most direct antecedents are the English games of stoolball and "tut-ball".
By the early s, there were reports of a variety of uncodified bat-and-ball games recognizable as early forms of baseball being played around North America.
In the mids, a baseball craze hit the New York metropolitan area ,  and by , local journals were referring to baseball as the "national pastime" or "national game".
In , it barred participation by African Americans. The National Agreement of formalized relations both between the two major leagues and between them and the National Association of Professional Base Ball Leagues, representing most of the country's minor professional leagues.
That year also saw the founding of the Negro National League ; the first significant Negro league, it would operate until For part of the s, it was joined by the Eastern Colored League.
Compared with the present, professional baseball in the early 20th century was lower-scoring, and pitchers were more dominant.
Strict new regulations governed the ball's size, shape and composition, along with a new rule officially banning the spitball and other pitches that depended on the ball being treated or roughed-up with foreign substances, resulted in a ball that traveled farther when hit.
Louis Cardinals general manager Branch Rickey invested in several minor league clubs and developed the first modern farm system.
The first elections to the National Baseball Hall of Fame took place in In , Little League Baseball was founded in Pennsylvania.
A large number of minor league teams disbanded when World War II led to a player shortage. Chicago Cubs owner Philip K. Wrigley led the formation of the All-American Girls Professional Baseball League to help keep the game in the public eye.
Jackie Robinson was signed by the National League's Brooklyn Dodgers and began playing for their minor league team in Montreal.
In , the union's power—and players' salaries—began to increase greatly when the reserve clause was effectively struck down , leading to the free agency system.
Regular-season interleague play was introduced in and the second-highest attendance mark for a full season was set.
While their identities were maintained for scheduling purposes and the designated hitter distinction , the regulations and other functions—such as player discipline and umpire supervision—they had administered separately were consolidated under the rubric of MLB.
In , Barry Bonds established the current record of 73 home runs in a single season. There had long been suspicions that the dramatic increase in power hitting was fueled in large part by the abuse of illegal steroids as well as by the dilution of pitching talent due to expansion , but the issue only began attracting significant media attention in and there was no penalty for the use of performance-enhancing drugs before Widely known as America's pastime, baseball is well established in several other countries as well.
As early as , a professional league, the International Association , featured teams from both Canada and the US.
The Dominican Republic held its first islandwide championship tournament in Many European countries have professional leagues as well; the most successful, other than the Dutch league , is the Italian league , founded in After being admitted to the Olympics as a medal sport beginning with the Games , baseball was dropped from the Summer Olympic Games at the International Olympic Committee meeting.
It remained part of the Games. The inaugural Classic , held in March , was the first tournament involving national teams to feature a significant number of MLB participants.
Baseball has certain attributes that set it apart from the other popular team sports in the countries where it has a following. All of these sports use a clock;  in all of them, play is less individual and more collective;  and in none of them is the variation between playing fields nearly as substantial or important.
In clock-limited sports, games often end with a team that holds the lead killing the clock rather than competing aggressively against the opposing team.
In contrast, baseball has no clock; a team cannot win without getting the last batter out and rallies are not constrained by time.
At almost any turn in any baseball game, the most advantageous strategy is some form of aggressive strategy. While nine innings has been the standard since the beginning of professional baseball, the duration of the average major league game has increased steadily through the years.
At the turn of the 20th century, games typically took an hour and a half to play. In the s, they averaged just less than two hours, which eventually ballooned to 2: In , Nippon Professional Baseball took steps aimed at shortening games by 12 minutes from the preceding decade's average of 3: In , the average nine-inning playoff game in Major League baseball was 3 hours and 35 minutes.
This was up 10 minutes from and 21 minutes from Although baseball is a team sport, individual players are often placed under scrutiny and pressure.
In , a baseball instructional manual pointed out that every single pitch, of which there are often more than two hundred in a game, involves an individual, one-on-one contest: While coaching staffs can signal pitcher or batter to pursue certain tactics, the execution of the play itself is a series of solitary acts.
If the batter hits a line drive, the outfielder is solely responsible for deciding to try to catch it or play it on the bounce and for succeeding or failing.
The statistical precision of baseball is both facilitated by this isolation and reinforces it. As described by Mandelbaum,.
It is impossible to isolate and objectively assess the contribution each [football] team member makes to the outcome of the play In baseball, by contrast, every player is more or less on his own Baseball is therefore a realm of complete transparency and total responsibility.
A baseball player lives in a glass house, and in a stark moral universe Everything that every player does is accounted for and everything accounted for is either good or bad, right or wrong.
Cricket is more similar to baseball than many other team sports in this regard: There is no statistical equivalent in cricket for the fielding error and thus less emphasis on personal responsibility in this area of play.
Unlike those of most sports, baseball playing fields can vary significantly in size and shape. The most famously idiosyncratic outfield boundary is the left-field wall at Boston's Fenway Park , in use since Similarly, there are no regulations at all concerning the dimensions of foul territory.
Thus a foul fly ball may be entirely out of play in a park with little space between the foul lines and the stands, but a foulout in a park with more expansive foul ground.
These variations can make the difference between a double and a triple or inside-the-park home run. While the adjacent image shows a traditional field surfacing arrangement and the one used by virtually all MLB teams with naturally surfaced fields , teams are free to decide what areas will be grassed or bare.
Surface variations can have a significant effect on how ground balls behave and are fielded as well as on baserunning. Similarly, the presence of a roof seven major league teams play in stadiums with permanent or retractable roofs can greatly affect how fly balls are played.
The area out-of-bounds on a football or soccer field does not affect play the way foul territory in baseball does, so variations in that regard are largely insignificant.
These physical variations create a distinctive set of playing conditions at each ballpark. Other local factors, such as altitude and climate, can also significantly affect play.
A given stadium may acquire a reputation as a pitcher's park or a hitter's park, if one or the other discipline notably benefits from its unique mix of elements.
The most exceptional park in this regard is Coors Field , home of the Colorado Rockies. A team that plays in a park with a relatively short right field, such as the New York Yankees , will tend to stock its roster with left-handed pull hitters , who can best exploit it.
On the individual level, a player who spends most of his career with a team that plays in a hitter's park will gain an advantage in batting statistics over time—even more so if his talents are especially suited to the park.
Organized baseball lends itself to statistics to a greater degree than many other sports. Each play is discrete and has a relatively small number of possible outcomes.
In the late 19th century, a former cricket player, English-born Henry Chadwick of Brooklyn , was responsible for the "development of the box score , tabular standings, the annual baseball guide, the batting average , and most of the common statistics and tables used to describe baseball.
The Official Baseball Rules administered by MLB require the official scorer to categorize each baseball play unambiguously. The rules provide detailed criteria to promote consistency.
The score report is the official basis for both the box score of the game and the relevant statistical records. Certain traditional statistics are familiar to most baseball fans.
The basic batting statistics include: The basic baserunning statistics include: The basic pitching statistics include: The basic fielding statistics include: Among the many other statistics that are kept are those collectively known as situational statistics.
For example, statistics can indicate which specific pitchers a certain batter performs best against. If a given situation statistically favors a certain batter, the manager of the fielding team may be more likely to change pitchers or have the pitcher intentionally walk the batter in order to face one who is less likely to succeed.
Sabermetrics refers to the field of baseball statistical study and the development of new statistics and analytical tools.
The term is also used to refer directly to new statistics themselves. The growing popularity of sabermetrics since the early s has brought more attention to two batting statistics that sabermetricians argue are much better gauges of a batter's skill than batting average: Writing in , philosopher Morris Raphael Cohen described baseball as America's national religion.
Scholar Peter Bjarkman describes "how deeply the sport is ingrained in the history and culture of a nation such as Cuba, [and] how thoroughly it was radically reshaped and nativized in Japan.
The major league game in the United States was originally targeted toward a middle-class, white-collar audience: With the rise in popularity of other team sports with much higher average ticket prices—football, basketball, and hockey—professional baseball had become among the most blue-collar-oriented of leading American spectator sports.
Overall, baseball has a large following in the United States; a poll found that nearly half of Americans are fans.
Total NPB attendance for the year was approximately 20 million. While in the preceding two decades, MLB attendance grew by 50 percent and revenue nearly tripled, the comparable NPB figures were stagnant.
There are concerns that MLB's growing interest in acquiring star Japanese players will hurt the game in their home country.
Similarly, according to one official pronouncement, the sport's governing authority "has never taken into account attendance As of [update] , Little League Baseball oversees leagues with close to 2.
A varsity baseball team is an established part of physical education departments at most high schools and colleges in the United States.
Today, high school baseball in particular is immensely popular there. The tournaments are known, respectively, as Spring Koshien and Summer Koshien after the 55,capacity stadium where they are played.
Talented children as young as seven are sent to special district schools for more intensive training—the first step on a ladder whose acme is the national baseball team.
Baseball has had a broad impact on popular culture, both in the United States and elsewhere. Dozens of English-language idioms have been derived from baseball ; in particular, the game is the source of a number of widely used sexual euphemisms.
Baseball has inspired many works of art and entertainment. One of the first major examples, Ernest Thayer 's poem " Casey at the Bat ", appeared in A wry description of the failure of a star player in what would now be called a "clutch situation", the poem became the source of vaudeville and other staged performances, audio recordings, film adaptations, and an opera, as well as a host of sequels and parodies in various media.
Robinson ", and John Fogerty 's " Centerfield ". Six decades later, Time named it the best comedy routine of the 20th century. Kinsella 's Shoeless Joe the source for Field of Dreams.
Among the celebrated nonfiction books in the field are Lawrence S. The publication of major league pitcher Jim Bouton 's tell-all chronicle Ball Four is considered a turning point in the reporting of professional sports.
Baseball has also inspired the creation of new cultural forms. Baseball cards were introduced in the late 19th century as trade cards. A typical example featured an image of a baseball player on one side and advertising for a business on the other.
In the early s they were produced widely as promotional items by tobacco and confectionery companies. The s saw the popularization of the modern style of baseball card, with a player photograph accompanied on the rear by statistics and biographical data.
Baseball cards—many of which are now prized collectibles—are the source of the much broader trading card industry, involving similar products for different sports and non-sports-related fields.
Modern fantasy sports began in with the invention of Rotisserie League Baseball by New York writer Daniel Okrent and several friends.
Participants in a Rotisserie league draft notional teams from the list of active MLB players and play out an entire imaginary season with game outcomes based on the players' latest real-world statistics.
Rotisserie-style play quickly became a phenomenon. Now known more generically as fantasy baseball , it has inspired similar games based on an array of different sports.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the sport. For the ball used in the sport, see Baseball ball.
For other uses, see Baseball disambiguation. For old time baseball, see Vintage base ball. Baseball rules and Outline of baseball.
Retrieved August 13, Archived from the original on 24 January Archived PDF from the original on 5 February Archived PDF from the original on February 5, Fitzgerald, Stephen; et al.
Patent Application ". Retrieved March 27, Ryan Howard and Rafael Nadal don't have quicker reflexes than you do.
They hit the fastest pitches and return the hardest serves because they can see the future". Live Ball Rule 5. Archived from the original on July 14, Retrieved April 21, An American Baseball History.
Retrieved April 22, Archived PDF from the original on May 20, Archived PDF from the original on February 24, Images of Minor League Baseball Univ.
Dickey Should Throw More Knuckleballs". Retrieved April 23, Retrieved October 23, It's the only sport for people who hate sport". Newbery's Little Pretty Pocket-Book".
Retrieved 26 July Small City, Big Baseball Town". Archived from the original on March 21, Retrieved February 3, Thinking Outside the Batter's Box , ed.
Eric Bronson Open Court, , pp. Archived from the original on Archived from the original on July 24, Retrieved January 29, The New York Times.
Archived from the original on January 20, Baseball participation, popularity rising across the nation". World Baseball Softball Confederation.
Retrieved April 2, The Beaver Bites Back?: American Popular Culture in Canada. Baseball in the Holy Land". Archived from the original on January 31, Archived from the original on March 6, Archived from the original on August 12,
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